What are Inhalants and its classification, pharmaceutical chemistry notes

Inhalants :

Inhalants are directly administrated by nasal or oral respiratory route for local or systemic effect. There are five gases which are used as inhalants are oxygen, carbondioxide, helium, nitrogen and nitrous oxide.
Inhalants and classification and function of Inhalants

(1)  Inhalants are the drug of chemical that is in gaseous form and are adminstrate through oral or respiratory tract.
(2)  These are administrate by inhalation in a closed mask method or it may also spraid as fine droplets.
(3)  After administration of inhalants the vapour of the drug are carried in to the respiratory tract of the patient where the vapour reach the effected area and give relief from the symptoms.
(4)  The most common gasses which are used as inhalants are oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide etc.

Oxygen (O2) :

Physical properties :

-  It is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas.
-  It is soluble in water and air.
-  It is flamble in nature.

Chemical properties :

-  Non metals like sulphur, carbon, phosphorous react with oxygen it forms oxide.
C  +  O2  ------->   CO2
S  +  O2 -------->   SO2
4P + SO2 ------->  2P2O5

Storage :

It is stored under compression in a metalic cylinder which are usually dark green in colour and labelled with the name of the gas " O2".

Uses :

-  Oxygen is used as inhalant for supporting respiration during post operative condition.
-  It is used to pneumonia, and some heart disorders like congestive heart failure.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) :

Physical properties :

-  It is colorless and odorless.
-  It have sour in taste.
-  It is easily soluble in water.
-  It is non combustible in nature.

Chemical properties :

-  At normal temperature carbon dioxide is unreactive in nature and it partially decomposes in to carbon monoxide and oxygen.
2CO2  --------->  2CO   +   O2

Storage :

It is usually stored and supplied in cylinders which are usually gray in colour in which the name of the gas CO2 is written.

Uses :

-  It is most widely used in fire extinguisher.
-  It is used in green house for the growth of plant.
-  It is used in the carbonated beverages in the sub drink company.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) :

Physical properties :

(1)  It is a colorless and odorless gas.
(2)  It has slightly sweet taste.
(3)  It is soluble in oils.
(4)  It is non combustible in nature .

Chemical properties :

At high temperature it get decomoses in to nitrogen and oxygen.
 2N2O   ----------->     2N2   +   O2

Storage :

It is stored and supplied in a metal cyanider which are usually blue in colour in which the name of the gas N2O is labeled.

Uses :

-  A mixture of nitrous oxide with oxygen is used for the relief of pain in child birth.
-  It is also used calming in exited patient.


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