Expectorant Definition,Classification and it's function, pharmaceutical chemistry notes

Expectorant :

Expectorent are the drugs which is uesd orally to help in the removal of sputum from the respiratory tract including trachia,bronchi etc.Hence these are used in the treatment of cough.

The cough is a protective physiological reflux to clear the airway. Infection, chemical irritants, retained body secretions and presence of foreign body that block airway, all can and do cause coughing by stimulating the nerve ending in the respiratory  tract.
Expectorant , what is expectorant

Cough :

There are two types of cough.
(1)  Productive/wet cough
(2)  Non productive/dry cough

(1) Productive cough :

It is the wet cough which produce sputum. It caused due to infection,chemical inritants and presence of foreign bodies that block airway and it may associated with asthma.

(2) Non productive cough :

It is the dry cough which does not produce sputum.It caused due to cold,inhalation of dust etc.

Mechanism of action :

It act open the respiratory tract in two ways.
(1)  By decreasing the viscosity of bronchial secreatoon and helping in their elemination.
(2)  By increasing the amount of respiratory tract fluid and helping in their elemination.

Classification :

Expectorent is classified in to two types.
(1)  Sedative expectorent
(2)  Stimulant expectorent

(1)  Sedative expectorant  :

These are the stomach irritant expectorant which are able to produce their effect through the stimulation of gastric reflexes.
ex- Ammonium chloride(NH4Cl),potassium iodide(KI)

(2)  Stimulant expectorent  :

These are the expectorant which bring about stimulation of secretory cells of the respiratory tract.
ex - Eucallyptus,lemon oil

Potassium iodide(KI) :

Physical properties :

Colour :  white granular powder
Odour :  odorless
Taste.  :  Saline taste
Solubility : Soluble in water and alcohol

Chemical properties :

Iodine radially dissolve in an aqous solution of potassium iodide forming a dark brown solution which contains potassium triiodide.
KI + I2 ---------> KI3

Storage :

It should be stored in in air tight container protected from light and moisture.

Uses :

(1)  It is used as an ingredient in expectorent cough medecine.
(2)  It is used as an antifungal agent in vetenary.
(3)  It is also used for the treatment of goiter.

Ammonium chloride : (NH4Cl)

Physical properties :

Colour : white crystaline powders.
Odour : Odorless.
Taste : Cooling saline taste.
Solubility : Soluble in water and alcohol.

Chemical properties :

Ammonium chloride when reacts with sodium hydroxide it releases ammonia gas.                                                           NH4Cl + NaOH   ----->   NH3 + NACl + H2O

Storage :

It should be storage in airtight container.

Uses :

-  It is used as an ingredient in expectorant cough medicines.
-  It used in leather and textile industries in dying, text tile printing and to give lauster to the cotton.
-  It is also used in hair shampoos as a thickning agent.

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