Exipients Used in tablets, pharmaceuts notes.

Excipients used in Tablets :

Tablets are the solid dosae from containing medicament,usually circular in shape and may be flat or biconvex. Tablets are prepared by the compression method hence it is called "compressied Tablets".
Exipients used in tablets, Pharmaceutics notes

Exepients used in formulation of tablets :

An exipients is an inert substance which is added along with medicaments to prepare the granules from the solid medicaments.

Some of the important exipients are describe below :

(1)  Dilutent :

The dilutent is need in the formulation of tablet,When the quantity of medicament in each tablet is very small and it is not possible to make a good tablet . commonly used dilutents  are lactose,sucrose,starch,sorbitol,sodium chloride and dextrose etc.

(2)  Granulating agent :

These are used to convert the fine powder in to granules. A granulating agent provide proper moister to convert fine powder in to damp mass,which after passing through a sieve of suitable number forms granules.The various granulating agent are water, alcohol, mucilage of acacia, mucilage of tragacanth etc.

(3)  Binding agent :

These are used in granulation to provide proper streangth to the granules in order to keep the tablet intact after compression.The various binding agent are gum accacia,gum tragacanth, gelatin etc.

(4)  Disintegrating agent :

The substances which are added in the tablet formulation to ensure disintegrating of the tablets in to smaller particles when swallowed are called disintegrating agent.When the medicament is insoluble in water a disintegrating agent is used.
Disintegrating agent acts in three ways-

a. By swelling :

Disintegrating agent gets swelled when it comes contact with water or moisture.
eg. Potato starch, maize starch, wheat starch, methyl cellulose etc. maize starch is commonly used because it is cheap.

b. By producing effervescence :

They produce effervescence when they come in contact with moisture eg. Sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid.

C. They melt at body temperature :

It is generally divided in to two parts . One part is mixed along with other exipients before the formation of granules. The other part is mixed with dry granules before compression.

(5)  Lubricants :

These are added to improve the appearance of tablets, flow properties, of granules and to prevent the sticking of the materials to the dies and punches.
The lubricants are divided in to 3 groups.

A. Lubricants :

These are the substance that reduce interparticular friction during compression. E.g.. talc, calcium sterate etc.

B. Glidants :

They improved the flow properties of the granules from hopper of the tablet machine. eg. Talc, magnesium sterate , boric acid and starch etc.

C. Anti adhesive agent :

These prevents the sticking of tablets surface to dies and punches during compression. eg. Liquid paraffin , magnesium sterate etc.

(6)  Adsorbing agent :

These substance are used to adsorb volatile oil ,liquid extract and tincture etc. Which are included in the formulation of tablets.The commonly used adsorbents are magnesium carbonate, kaolin and starch.

(7)  Colours, flavours and sweetening agents :

The colours are used to improve the elegance of the tablet.The colours are added to the solution of the granulating agent or these are mixed with other ingredients before granulation.
Flavouring and sweetining agents are used to improve the taste of the tablet.


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