Solid waste definition and it's disposal | Health hazard of solid waste

Solid waste :

Solid waste are unwanted or discarded materials. They may contain dust, ash, paper, packing, and also purifiable matters such as fruits and vegetables. They may be the products from houses, industrial, commercial, or agriculture. They are called refuse in cities.

Health hazard of solid wastes :

(1)  They attract flies and rats.
(2)  They may pollute water if rain water seeps through them.
(3)  They may pollute air by spontaneous or accidental combustion.

Collection of refuse :

Refuse in solid waste from cities .It may be collected from market, streets, industries and houses. In the house the refuse may be stored in dust bins. In the streets , they are dumped in public bins.
Solid waste , disposal of solid waste, health hazard of solid waste

Disposal of refuse :

(1)  Dumping :

The refuse is dumped in low lying areas. Due to bacterial action , it is reduced in volume and converted in to humus.

Disadvantages :

-  It is exposed to flies and rodents.
-  It produces foul smell.
-  It may lead to water pollution.
-  It is dispersed by wind.

(2)  Burning :

Another hygienic method of refuse of disposal by burning. It is very suitable for cities where adequete land is not avlailable. Hospital refuse are highly infectious and they are disposed by burning. How ever disposal by burning is not economical as it leads to total loss of the much needed manure.

(3)  Composting :

It is a method used for the disposal of refuse along with the night soil or sludge. It is a natural process during which the organic matters breaks down under bacterial action resulting in the formation of relatively stable humus like material called compost.The main biproduct of compost are carbon dioxide, heat and water.

Manure pits :

It is one of the most practical and effective methods of refuse disposal in rural areas of our country. The garbage, cattle dung, straw and leaves are dumped in to the manure pits and covered with earth after each days dumping. In 5-6 months time the refuse is converted in to manure which can be used in the fields.
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